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Title: Energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions of palm oil biodiesel in Indonesia
Authors: Harsono, Soni SisbudiProchnow, AnnetteGrundmann, PhilippHansen, AnjaHallmann, Claudia
Publishers Version: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1757-1707.2011.01118.x
Issue Date: 2011
Published in: GCB Bioenergy, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 213-228
Publisher: Milton Park : Taylor & Francis
Abstract: This study presents a cradle-to-gate assessment of the energy balances and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land-use change (LUC), agricultural phase, transportation, milling, biodiesel processing, and comparing the results from different farming systems, including company plantations and smallholder plantations (either out growers or independent growers) in different locations in Kalimantan and Sumatra of Indonesia. The findings demonstrate that there are considerable differences between the farming systems and the locations in net energy yields (43.6–49.2 GJ t 1 biodiesel yr 1) as well as GHG emissions (1969.6–5626.4 kg CO2eq t 1 biodiesel yr 1). The output to input ratios are positive in all cases. The largest GHG emissions result from LUC effects, followed by the transesterification, fertilizer production, agricultural production processes, milling, and transportation. Ecosystem carbon payback times range from 11 to 42 years.
Keywords: Ecosystem carbon payback time; energy balances; farming systems; greenhouse gas emissions; land-use change; net energy yield; palm oil biodiesel
DDC: 630
License: This document may be downloaded, read, stored and printed for your own use within the limits of § 53 UrhG but it may not be distributed via the internet or passed on to external parties.
Dieses Dokument darf im Rahmen von § 53 UrhG zum eigenen Gebrauch kostenfrei heruntergeladen, gelesen, gespeichert und ausgedruckt, aber nicht im Internet bereitgestellt oder an Außenstehende weitergegeben werden.
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